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# Learn Physics the Easy Way with Concept Of Physics HC Verma Vol 2

- What are the main topics covered in the book? - Why is the book useful for physics students and teachers? H2: Heat and Temperature - What are heat and temperature and how are they related? - What are the different scales of temperature measurement? - What are the different modes of heat transfer? - What are the laws of thermodynamics and how do they apply to various processes? H2: Kinetic Theory of Gases - What are the basic assumptions of the kinetic theory of gases? - What are the different gas laws and how can they be derived from the kinetic theory? - What are the concepts of pressure, temperature, and internal energy of a gas? - What are the different types of gas processes and how can they be represented on a PV diagram? H2: Calorimetry - What is calorimetry and what are its applications? - What are the concepts of specific heat, latent heat, and heat capacity? - How can calorimetry be used to determine the heat transfer between different substances or systems? - What are some examples of calorimetry experiments and calculations? H2: Laws of Thermodynamics - What are the first and second laws of thermodynamics and what do they state? - How can the first law be used to analyze energy changes in different systems? - How can the second law be used to determine the direction of spontaneous processes and the efficiency of heat engines? - What are some applications and implications of the laws of thermodynamics in physics and other fields? H2: Specific Heat Capacities of Gases - What is specific heat capacity and how does it vary for different substances? - How can specific heat capacities of gases be measured experimentally? - What are the differences between molar specific heat capacities at constant volume and constant pressure for gases? - How can specific heat capacities of gases be related to their degrees of freedom and molecular structure? H2: Heat Transfer - What are the different modes of heat transfer and how do they differ in terms of mechanism and rate? - How can heat transfer by conduction be described by Fourier's law and thermal conductivity? - How can heat transfer by convection be described by Newton's law of cooling and convection coefficient? - How can heat transfer by radiation be described by Stefan-Boltzmann law and emissivity? H2: Electric Field and Potential - What are electric charges, forces, fields, and potentials and how are they related? - How can electric fields and potentials be calculated for different charge distributions using Coulomb's law and superposition principle? - How can electric fields and potentials be represented by electric field lines and equipotential surfaces? - What are some applications and phenomena involving electric fields and potentials such as capacitors, lightning, electric flux, etc.? H2: Gauss's Law - What is Gauss's law and what does it state in terms of electric flux and charge enclosed by a closed surface? - How can Gauss's law be used to calculate electric fields for symmetric charge distributions such as spheres, cylinders, planes, etc.? - How can Gauss's law be used to derive some important results such as Coulomb's law, electric potential due to a point charge, capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor, etc.? - What are some limitations and advantages of Gauss's law compared to other methods of calculating electric fields? H2: Capacitors - What are capacitors and what are their functions in electric circuits? - How can capacitors be characterized by their capacitance, charge, voltage, energy, etc.? - How can capacitors be connected in series or parallel to obtain different equivalent capacitances? - How do capacitors behave when they are charged or discharged through a resistor or a battery? H2: Electric Current in Conductors - What is electric current and how is it measured by an ammeter? - What are conductors and how do they allow electric current to flow through them? - How can electric current in conductors be described by Ohm's law and resistance? - How can resistance depend on factors such as length, cross-sectional area, temperature, material, etc.? H2: Thermal And Chemical Effects Of Current - What are thermal effects of current and how do they manifest in devices such as heaters, fuses, bulbs, etc.? - How can thermal effects of current be explained by Joule's law of heating and power dissipation? - What are chemical effects of current and how do they manifest in devices such as batteries, electrolysis cells, electroplating cells, etc.? - How can chemical effects of current be explained by Faraday's laws of electrolysis and electrochemical cells? - H2: Magnetic Field - What are magnetic fields and how are they generated by magnets or electric currents? - How can magnetic fields be measured by a compass or a magnetometer? - How can magnetic fields be calculated for different current configurations using Biot-Savart law or Ampere's circuital law? - How can magnetic fields be represented by magnetic field lines or vector fields? - H2: Magnetic Force - What are magnetic forces and how do they act on moving charges or current-carrying wires? - How can magnetic forces be calculated using Lorentz force law or Fleming's left-hand rule? - How can magnetic forces cause motion or deflection of charges or currents in devices such as galvanometers, cyclotrons, mass spectrometers, etc.? - H2: Magnetism And Matter - What are magnetic materials and how do they respond to external magnetic fields? - How can magnetic materials be classified into diamagnetic, paramagnetic, ferromagnetic, antiferromagnetic, etc. based on their magnetic properties? - How can magnetization, susceptibility, permeability, hysteresis loop, etc. be used to characterize magnetic materials? - H2: Electromagnetic Induction - What is electromagnetic induction and how does it occur when there is a change in magnetic flux through a coil or a circuit? - How can electromagnetic induction be described by Faraday's law or Lenz's law? - How can electromagnetic induction be used to generate electric current or voltage in devices such as generators, transformers, induction coils, etc.? - H2: Alternating Current - What is alternating current (AC) and how does it differ from direct current (DC)? - How can AC sources be characterized by their frequency, amplitude, phase angle, etc.? - How do AC circuits behave when they contain resistors, capacitors, inductors, or combinations thereof? - How can AC circuits be analyzed using phasor diagrams or complex numbers? ## Article with HTML formatting Introduction

If you are a student or a teacher who wants to learn or teach physics in a comprehensive way, then you might have heard about the book "Concept Of Physics" by H C Verma. This book is one of the most popular books for physics education in India. It covers all the topics that you need to know for your school exams as well as competitive exams like JEE Main/Advanced.

## Concept Of Physics H C Verma Volume 2 Full Book

The book is divided into two volumes: Volume 1 deals with mechanics, waves/sound/optics/heat/light/modern physics while Volume 2 deals with electricity/magnetism/electromagnetic induction/alternating current.

In this article, we will focus on Volume 2 of the book. We will give you an overview of each chapter, highlighting the main concepts, formulas, and examples that you will find in the book. We will also tell you why this book is useful for physics students and teachers who want to master these topics.

Heat And Temperature

The first chapter of Volume 2 starts with one of the most fundamental concepts in physics: heat and temperature. These two concepts are often confused with each other, but they have distinct meanings and implications.

Heat

is a form of energy that is transferred from one body to another due to a difference in temperature. Heat always flows from a hotter body to a colder body until thermal equilibrium is reached. The unit of heat is joule (J) or calorie (cal).

Temperature

is a measure of how hot or cold a body is. It is related to the average kinetic energy of the molecules that make up the body. The higher the temperature, the faster the molecules move. The unit of temperature is degree Celsius ( C) or kelvin (K). The relation between them is K = C + 273.15.

In this chapter, you will learn about the different scales of temperature measurement, such as Celsius, Fahrenheit, Kelvin, etc. You will also learn about the different modes of heat transfer, such as conduction, convection, and radiation. You will also learn about the laws of thermodynamics, which govern the behavior of heat and energy in various processes.

Kinetic Theory Of Gases

The second chapter of Volume 2 introduces you to the kinetic theory of gases, which is a model that explains the behavior of gases at the molecular level. The kinetic theory of gases makes some basic assumptions, such as:

• The gas consists of a large number of identical molecules that are in constant random motion.

• The molecules are so small and far apart that their size and intermolecular forces can be neglected.

• The molecules collide with each other and with the walls of the container elastically, meaning that there is no loss of kinetic energy.

• The average kinetic energy of the molecules is proportional to the absolute temperature of the gas.

Using these assumptions, you will learn how to derive the different gas laws, such as Boyle's law, Charles's law, Gay-Lussac's law, Avogadro's law, and the ideal gas equation. You will also learn how to calculate the pressure, temperature, and internal energy of a gas using the concepts of kinetic energy and momentum. You will also learn how to describe the different types of gas processes, such as isothermal, adiabatic, isobaric, isochoric, etc., using a PV diagram.

Calorimetry

The third chapter of Volume 2 deals with calorimetry, which is the science of measuring heat transfer between different substances or systems. Calorimetry has many applications in physics, chemistry, biology, engineering, etc.

In this chapter, you will learn about the concepts of specific heat, latent heat, and heat capacity. Specific heat is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of a substance by one degree Celsius. Latent heat is the amount of heat required to change the phase of one gram of a substance without changing its temperature. Heat capacity is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of a system by one degree Celsius.

You will also learn how to use calorimetry to determine the heat transfer between different substances or systems using the principle of conservation of energy. You will also learn how to perform some calorimetry experiments and calculations using different methods and devices.

Laws Of Thermodynamics

The fourth chapter of Volume 2 covers one of the most important topics in physics: the laws of thermodynamics. These laws describe how heat and energy are exchanged and transformed in various processes involving matter and radiation.

The first law of thermodynamics states that energy can neither be created nor destroyed, but only converted from one form to another. It also states that the change in internal energy of a system is equal to the heat added to the system minus the work done by the system.

The second law of thermodynamics states that entropy, which is a measure of disorder or randomness, always increases in an isolated system. It also states that heat cannot flow spontaneously from a colder body to a hotter body, and that no process can convert heat completely into work without any waste.

In this chapter, you will learn how to apply these laws to analyze energy changes in different systems, such as engines, refrigerators, heat pumps, etc. You will also learn how to determine the direction of spontaneous processes and the efficiency of heat engines using concepts such as Carnot cycle, reversible and irreversible processes, entropy change, etc. You will also learn about some applications and implications of these laws in physics and other fields.

Specific Heat Capacities Of Gases

The fifth chapter of Volume 2 continues with the topic of heat and gases, but focuses on the specific heat capacities of gases. Specific heat capacity is a property that characterizes how much heat a substance can absorb or release per unit mass per unit temperature change.

In this chapter, you will learn how to measure experimentally the specific heat capacities of gases using methods such as Joule's experiment, calorimeter method, etc. You will also learn about the differences between molar specific heat capacities at constant volume and constant pressure for gases, and how they are related by Mayer's relation.

You will also learn how to relate the specific heat capacities of gases to their degrees of freedom and molecular structure using concepts such as equipartition theorem, monatomic, diatomic, and polyatomic gases, etc. You will also learn about some exceptions and limitations of these concepts for real gases.

Heat Transfer

The sixth chapter of Volume 2 revisits the topic of heat transfer, which was introduced in Chapter 1, but goes into more depth and detail. Heat transfer is the process by which heat flows from one body or system to another due to a difference in temperature.

In this chapter, you will learn about the different modes of heat transfer and how they differ in terms of mechanism and rate. The three modes are conduction, convection, and radiation.

• Conduction is the mode of heat transfer that occurs within a solid or between two solids in contact due to molecular collisions. It can be described by Fourier's law and thermal conductivity.

• Convection is the mode of heat transfer that occurs within a fluid or between a fluid and a solid due to bulk motion of fluid particles. It can be described by Newton's law of cooling and convection coefficient.

• Radiation is the mode of heat transfer that occurs between two bodies or systems due to electromagnetic waves emitted or absorbed by them. It can be described by Stefan-Boltzmann law and emissivity.

You will also learn how to calculate or estimate the rate of heat transfer for different situations involving one or more modes of heat transfer using concepts such as thermal resistance, thermal circuit, overall heat transfer coefficient, etc. You will also learn about some applications and phenomena involving heat transfer such as greenhouse effect, solar cooker, heat exchanger, etc.

Electric Field And Potential